Excavation Safety Modeling Approach Using BIM and VPL

Soil excavation is a fundamental step in the development of buildings and infrastructure. Despite the rigorous application of construction best practices and regulations, accidents in the construction sector are relatively higher than in other sectors.

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Additionally, a significant increase in injuries and deaths in geotechnical activities such as digging wells and trenches has recently been reported. Academic researchers and industry professionals have now devoted vital attention to building safety acquisition in the pre-construction phase of the project. They have developed several algorithms to improve safety in the pre-construction phase, such as the automated generation of scaffolding and their potential risk analysis, the verification of the BIM model to detect falling hazards and the allocation of restricted access areas in the masonry walls. However, the safety of geotechnical works in the pre-construction phase is still unexplored. This paper proposed an approach to automatic safety compliance for excavation work that leverages algorithmic modeling tools and BIM technologies. The Focused Approach consists of the following three modules: Information Extraction and Logical Design (IELD), Information Conversion and Process Integration (ICPI), and Safety and Automotive Plan Generation (ASPG). In particular, the scope of the document is limited to major hazards such as collapses, falls, emergency exits and prohibited hazards. A set of rule-based algorithms has been developed into commercially available software using Visual Programming Language (VPL) that automatically generates geometric conditions in BIM and displays potential hazards and installation of security assets along with their quantity and location of take off. optimized. A case study was presented to validate the proof of concept; The automated modeling tool for excavation safety planning has successfully generated the required results. The proposed approach is expected to have the potential to assist designers through automated modeling and assist decision makers in developing productive and practical safety plans versus conventional 2D plans for pre-excavation work. building. Furthermore, it is understood that the same approach can be extended to other construction themes that depend on the rules.

1. Introduction
Construction safety is a major concern around the world [1]. Recent studies have reported a significant increase in excavation-related accidents [2] and could have been avoided with further consideration. Soil excavation is an essential step in infrastructure development which includes soil removal for foundation installation, cutting and backfilling to create usable soil and landfill to build dikes for flood mitigation [3]. In building construction, the importance of excavation work is eminent due to the final foundations of the whole construction. In general, construction projects such as building foundations, service lines, tunnels and underpasses require excavation in different structures, such as open pit excavation, caving, trenches and drive shafts. According to the Administration of Occupational Safety and Health, the Administration of Occupational Safety and Health, hereinafter OSHA, excavation typically refers to any artificial cut, trench, cavity or depression that digs into the soil [4]. Despite the constant determination of safety professionals, researchers and imposed safety regulations, injuries and fatalities have not decreased significantly.

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